GOOD COMBINATION OF THEORY AND PRACTICE...
This volume offers the promise of directly engaging faculty through an
approach that integrates theory and practice, process and results,
professional development and authentic practice, individual classrooms and
This is an invaluable aid in developing empowered learning communities as
faculty teams continue their work focused on assessment."
Hank Lindborg, Educational Consultant, AQIP
How to Use this Book
eface: The Story of the Evolution of This Book and Its Intentions
The Faculty Guidebook is the product of more
than sixteen years’ worth of accumulated knowledge, experience, research,
and collaboration. It is the means for realizing a long-standing dream of
an eclectic community of educators who share in common a—
belief that educators and their institutions need
to transform the way they conduct themselves if they want to add the value
expected by modern society
passion for fostering the development of all learners,
themselves included, to be more independent, skilled, life-long learners and
desire to advance teaching and learning by applying
their scholarly skills to advance the philosophy, approaches, and tools of
More than fifty members of this community of faculty members,
administrators, and innovators in education have stepped forward to author
one or more modules for this fourth edition and share with you the best of
what they have learned. They come from a wide variety of disciplines, types
of institutions, and geographic regions.
Ask any member of this community how he or she became involved
in this effort, and you are likely to hear a similar story. They report having
been dissatisfied with their own performance as well as that of their students,
though they have conscientiously tried to foster student success. They convey
a deep concern that students in general do not take enough ownership of their
own learning and seem to be unable to transfer their knowledge from one context
to another. They frequently express concern that if academic standards are
compromised, society as a whole will suffer. Then these educators typically
say that, once they had participated in a Process Education institute they
felt excitement at the possibilities seen. Exposure to a Process Education
institute offers a new way of looking at the roles of a faculty member and
the relationship between faculty and students. Frustration has often been
replaced with a determination to approach teaching and learning differently,
knowing full well that this entails a great deal of hard work. Educators report
trying new approaches with some wonderful successes, and others that will
require considerable work before they will yield the desired results. Despite
the difficulties and frustrations, you can see as they speak about teaching
and student learning that they have a fire within them.
This up-and-down nature of the process is not surprising.
Often great change comes only through great effort. Think, for example, of
the Great Westward Migration of the United States. There were explorers
who were restless, not content with what was already known. They looked around
and saw that it was crowded, that there were limitations involved in keeping
a growing population on the same familiar-but-limited land. The explorers
were curious; they sought new challenges, and, through their willingness to
explore and take risks, they expanded everyone’s idea of what might be possible.
The pioneers were inspired by what the explorers had done and they
built on it. They moved beyond exploring ‘the possible’ and concentrated on
realizing ‘the actual.’ These were people of great courage who gathered the
knowledge the explorers had gleaned, and used it to move to totally new locations,
changing their lives as new situations required. Using the explorers’ knowledge,
the pioneers were able to pack wisely for the journey, and move on with more
confidence, better able to anticipate and manage predictable dangers. They
were able to invest their energies in developing their new environments, learning
to live and function effectively within them. The settlers were less
eager to take risks; they needed greater evidence that success was possible
before they were willing to venture into unsettled territories, but as the
success stories of the pioneers became more numerous, and as they could see
that it was possible to venture out safely, more and more settlers joined
the migration. These people made up the masses that settled the West. The
final group, the Tories, remained loyal to the mother country and the
traditions of the past. They enjoyed many of the comforts and privileges associated
with living in the already-settled East Coast, and had no interest in taking
on the risks and hardships that came with settling new locations. Since they
felt that the westward expansion threatened their beloved status quo, they
used their energies to thwart it.
The “explorers” within our community of educators are an
interesting group. Dr. Dan Apple, president and founder of Pacific Crest,
came from a background in systems analysis, the sciences, technology, and
business. In the early 80s he and his company explored using pre-Windows software
designed to help professionals solve quantitative problems. People liked the
software, but as the sales staff worked with users, they found that many individuals
in business and industry didn’t have the thinking skills necessary to optimize
its use. As they tried to teach their clients these skills, they began to
invest a great deal of energy learning about how and where individuals developed
(or didn’t develop) these necessary thinking skills. Dr. Apple then started
to observe and explore educational institutions and trends in education, and,
in doing so, he learned some of the best practices.
In the mid-1990s Pacific Crest shifted its business focus
to helping faculty succeed in implementing new instructional methods. They
developed a core set of institutes and instructional materials, built on the
guiding principles for an educational philosophy that came to be known as
Process Education. These institutes were offered at a variety of colleges
and universities across the country, and, as Dr. Apple traveled and met with
more and more educators, he noticed that a growing number of them, though
they did not know each other, shared a common profile. These faculty members
were convinced that they could be much more effective in their roles as educators
and they were willing to engage in personal and professional development to
achieve that goal. They also recognized that the needs of their student populations
had become more complex, and that increasing numbers of students were arriving
at college less well-prepared than had students in the past. These educators
were dissatisfied with the level of student performance in their courses,
and they were often disillusioned with practices that were standard in their
own institutions. They knew that outside forces (i.e., legislators, taxpayers,
business and industry leaders) demanded greater evidence of student success
and they wanted new graduates to be able to perform to higher standards. They
could see that if the changes were going to have lasting impacts, that they
would have to occur throughout their institutions, not just within isolated
classrooms, and they wanted to be able to help steer the direction of that
change. Many members of this group were risk takers, challenged by trying
to be agents of change within well-entrenched organizations.
In response to the needs of educators and their institutions,
Pacific Crest expanded its repertoire of faculty development institutes. As
Dr. Apple visited colleges in different parts of the country and developed
connections with more and more educators, he could see that many were lonely
explorers who had been trying new approaches with active learning in their
own environments, trying to help learners become more responsible for their
own learning. Exploration takes great courage and involves risk, and many
educators were trying new approaches with varying degrees of success, often
in environments that were not very supportive or tolerant of the mistakes
that inevitably accompany innovation. Dr. Apple began to introduce these clients
to each other, feeling that educators’ innovations would be put to better
use if they were pooled and shared. As these early explorers came to know
one another and became familiar with each other’s work, they discovered that
they had much in common. They were eager to learn from one another’s experiences
and were hungry for the development of best practices. As scholars who were
established in their respective disciplines, they saw the need to apply a
scholarly approach to what they had been learning and developing in the application
of Process Education in their classrooms.
This group of educators evolved into ‘pioneers,’ hungry
to establish solid roots. They wanted knowledge and practices that could evolve
as others built upon what they had learned. They recognized the benefit of
a shared community experience. The pioneers identified two tangible resources
for building their new community. First, they wanted a place in which to publicly
share their scholarly writings so that they could be assessed by peers and
shared with others in order to expand the community. This resulted in development
of the Faculty Guidebook, an annual publication that shares an increasing
amount of new knowledge related to teaching and learning. The second resource
that the pioneers are developing is the
Academy of Process Educators.
They hold a conference each summer that offers a space for networking, sharing
research in the practices of teaching and learning while it is still in the
formative stage, receiving peer assessment of new ideas, and sharing best
practices. A number of these pioneers have joined Pacific Crest as associates,
facilitating institutes in areas that are consistent with their personal expertise.
During the last ten years, the
Academy of Process Educators
has identified five roles that are viewed as primary for an educator.
These are represented by the five nodes in the star diagram that appears on
the front cover of the Faculty Guidebook. These roles provide an organizational
framework for the sections in this book.
An educator facilitates higher levels of learning (knowledge
construction) using Bloom’s Taxonomy, emphasizing integrated performance and
problem solving rather than memorization.
An educator mentors learners, helping them improve
their learning performance by growing a set of transferable learning skills.
The mentor assists this process using facilitation skills that include assessment,
diagnosis, and intervention.
An educator encourages students to reflect and improve
their self-assessment skills so that students can self-mentor their own growth.
Invest in Professional Development
Educators must become master teachers by acquiring
competencies that are identified as part of the desired repertoire. Examples
of these include assessment, creating measures of effectiveness, using learning
theory, creating enriched learning environments, designing instruction, conducting
research, and modeling good team membership.
Expand Institutional Effectiveness
As institutions are held ever more accountable for
measuring and demonstrating their effectiveness, individual educators must
become systems thinkers who contribute to the overall credibility of their
As these educational pioneers gained experience and confidence,
they found themselves better able to create more self-sustaining settlements
in their respective institutions. This can be seen in stronger connections
with colleagues who are now actively seeking new ways of teaching and learning
and are willing to invest energy in institutional reform. There is also a
fresh openness to teaching and learning innovation among newly-hired colleagues.
The growth of these communities of scholars promises long-term transformation
in their respective institutions.
The Faculty Guidebook serves as an up-to-date forum
for sharing wisdom gained from years of experience and rapidly disseminating
new practices and tools required by expanded communities of ‘settlers.’ While
a wide variety of topics are included in the Guidebook, the modular
format makes it easy for readers to focus on a subset of proven learning and
teaching tools and slowly expand their repertoire. The book is also a place
in which to engage in the emerging scholarship of teaching and learning en
route to publication in disciplinary-specific journals. Topics are wide-ranging,
covering the areas of educational philosophy, learning theory, mentoring,
creating quality learning environments, facilitation, teaching practices and
learning tools, assessment, measurement and evaluation, instructional design,
and program assessment. During the next two years, more content will be added
to successive editions.
The metaphor is incomplete without mention of the ‘Tories.’
They exist in abundance and can be found in unexpected places. It would be
an over-simplification to say that the common thread among them is resistance
to change, though that is a motive. The following are some examples of the
players and the ways that they serve to resist change.
Legislators want reform, and then they pass legislation
that freezes or reduces resources.
Employers want better-prepared graduates, and then, when
there is a shortage of employees, they recruit students who have not yet finished
Seasoned faculty members who are comfortable with routine
ways of teaching are often the first to criticize those who attempt to innovate.
Administrators in community colleges who espouse the
desire to become more learning centered sometimes continue to expect
all faculty members to assume significant teaching loads so that it is nearly
impossible to reflect and try new methods.
People throughout research universities and within professional
organizations continue to reward and emphasize quantitative research in the
respective disciplines, and dismiss the qualitative research often required
to improve teaching and learning.
The Faculty Guidebook includes reader-friendly pieces
that concisely answer many of the challenges by the ‘Tories,’ they summarize
proven teaching and learning techniques for the ‘settlers,’ and provide professional
opportunity for the ‘pioneers’ to receive recognition for their work. The
authors and editorial staff hope that efforts like the Faculty Guidebook
succeed in generating a critical mass of educators working for transformational
change in higher education. A companion manual to the Faculty Guidebook
is currently being designed to assist individual educators and those who are
responsible for guiding the professional development of educators. We look
forward to hearing your insights about how to make these types of resources
more effective. Look for regular updates and share the modules you find most
meaningful with your colleagues.
How to Use This Book
Welcome to the fourth edition of the
Faculty Guidebook. More than fifty faculty members and administrators
from more than twenty-five colleges and universities have contributed to this
new edition, providing you with an effective blend of theory and practice
in a format that is easy to use.
The Faculty Guidebook is a tool that can help you
quickly absorb, research, apply, and disseminate new teaching/learning knowledge
and classroom innovations. It is not designed to be read cover-to-cover; as
the title indicates, it is a guidebook. Let the requirements of your work
determine your starting point and select the specific material you need as
you need it.
The information in this edition of the Faculty Guidebook
is presented in four sections, each of which correlates to a major role for
faculty members in an enriched learning environment: Institutional Development,
Intellectual Development, Learning Development, and Self Development. (See
the front cover; the fifth role, that of Professional Development, is addressed
by the Faculty Guidebook, as a whole.)
Each section is divided into chapters which address topics
central to the faculty role covered by that section. Finally, each chapter
is actually comprised of a number of modules. All 146 modules are short (no
longer than four pages), distilled to quickly convey what is essential about
any given topic. Most chapters begin with an overview module, so you can easily
skim the contents of the entire book just by reading the chapter overviews.
Each module provides you with references, allowing you
to apply the material with confidence, knowing that methods have been tested
and that successes are supported with evidence. You can also access the original
material if you want to find out more about the subject. In addition, each
chapter contains an annotated bibliography that provides you with the chapter
editor’s “short list” of top reference picks to facilitate deeper study of
a topic. To minimize overlap and needless repetition, frequent references
within the modules point you to related entries elsewhere within the Faculty
Guidebook. These references are bolded and italicized.
To help you navigate the Faculty Guidebook to meet
your personal needs we have provided the graphic on the front cover and two
modules that describe the bigger picture and which provide pointers to relevant
modules. Profile of a Quality Faculty Member (1.2.4) references
other modules based upon eight faculty performance areas. The second module,
Framework for Implementing Process Education (2.3.2),
includes a concept map that describes five key pathways or roles that are
inherent in the practice of functioning as a professional faculty member.
The map contains references to specific sections in the Faculty Guidebook.
This concept map evolved into the Star Diagram which holds pride of place
on the front cover of the book.
The Star Diagram is a dynamic version of
the concept map. It features the five key roles played by faculty members
in enriched learning environments. To understand the diagram, start by looking
at the background.
The terms within the background identify some of the
common cultural characteristics for which most educators currently strive,
such as student success, community outreach, and commitment to excellence.
Within the context of these values, educators engage
in a number of processes. The outer circle identifies what we consider to
be the most critical processes, such as assessment, teaching, and mentoring.
These processes, aligned with the values expressed, are part of what we refer
to as an enriched learning environment.
The ultimate goal in an enriched learning environment
is empowerment (at the center) for students, faculty, and the institution.
Empowerment is an increased capability resulting from expanded ability,
willingness, and support to act. Empowerment results in one’s ability to process
life’s challenges instead of being processed by these challenges.
One achieves empowerment from the values and processes
via the five roles identified. For example, when one functions as a learner,
one works toward empowerment through the growth of learning skills and processes.
As people continue to work, fulfilling all five roles,
the results include faculty excellence, increased institutional effectiveness,
and improvement in student learning
The five roles are interdependent as depicted by the
connecting arrows. For example, learning is at the heart of institutional
This brings us full circle and gives us a dynamic concept
map showing how we, as educators, can best perform in our various roles within
an enriched learning environment, to the betterment of our students, our institution,
Though it is an excellent background resource for a wide
variety of topics, the Faculty Guidebook is truly application oriented,
providing you with tools to help you and your learning community integrate
new and improved methods into your current practices.
Here are some practical situations in which the Faculty
Guidebook will be helpful:
You are a faculty member and you want to improve
your performance both inside and outside of the classroom.
You are a faculty member and you need a coaching tool
to help you mentor your colleagues or assist in the orientation of
a new member of your department.
You are a director of a graduate program and you
want to equip your students to be more effective future faculty members.
You are a dean or a department chair and
you want a reference to guide your faculty development efforts; one that is
based on solid evidence.
You are a faculty development administrator and
you want a comprehensive resource for designing free-standing workshops on
an array of specific topics designed to build skills and knowledge for teaching
You are an innovator in education and you want
a vehicle through which to share your best practices in conferences and publications
within a national organization of researchers and practitioners. (If you are
in this final category, we hope that you will contact Pacific Crest at
and let us know.)
At the back of the guide you will find a glossary of terms,
bio-sketches of all contributors, an alphabetical list of all modules, and
an invitation to review our book and contribute to it; here we also describe
the module development process. We invite you to become part of this ongoing
process and contribute to future editions of the Faculty Guidebook
as a reviewer or as a contributor.
The Faculty Guidebook— A
Resource for Faculty Development
The Faculty Guidebook offers both a viable theoretical framework and practical advice for designing and implementing individual growth plans as well as faculty development programming. It is the product of collaboration between scholars who have collectively researched and expanded upon principles, concepts and tools grounded in Process Education. As a resource book, it is anticipated that users will select those chapters and modules that best match their personal and organizational needs. However, it is suggested that a review of the first two chapters of the book will offer a framework for using materials in the remainder of the book. The first chapter provides a contextual framework for emerging societal expectations of higher education and the changes occurring in response to these elevated expectations. The second chapter outlines principles and practices of Process Education. Many directors of faculty development centers have found the Faculty Guidebook to be especially convenient and effective in promoting individual and community growth in assessment, facilitation, and instructional design.
The impetus for this resource was external pressure for evidence of greater learning effectiveness throughout higher education. Ernest Boyer has been pivotal in helping educators think about what the scholarship of teaching and learning needs to become if we are to fulfill these new expectations. For most educators within higher education, the discipline of teaching and learning is a second discipline that is best served by resources that integrate educational theory with classroom practice. This is the design philosophy behind the Faculty Guidebook.
Envision Quality Performance
Professional development plans require a clear vision of the desired end state. Over the last several years the growing group of educators contributing to this book recognized the need for a shared understanding of the most critical roles of faculty members if they hoped to influence the development of the academic culture at their respective institutions. This led to formulation of a concept map, that, in turn, evolved into the model offered on the cover of this book. It describes what have been concluded as the five key functions/roles of a faculty member. These roles include: enhancing learning, fostering learner development, nurturing self-growth, developing professionally, and expanding institutional effectiveness. The Faculty Guidebook serves as an evolving resource that fosters transformation in these five areas.
Readers should review this model for consistency with their personal vision or that of their institution as to what constitutes a quality faculty member. The broad base of input for the model and its evolution over time was intended to insure that it is reflective of that to which most academics aspire. Desired knowledge, skills, attributes and behaviors that support the model are inventoried in the module, Profile of a Quality Faculty Member. If users of the Faculty Guidebook, have significantly different views of ideal faculty performance, it is important to recognize these differences and plan accordingly.
Develop Learning Outcomes
The next step is to assess the gap between desired performance and one’s current level of knowledge and skills. Such an analysis helps one determine which needs are of greatest importance and those of greatest urgency. This determination sets the course for one to proceed to use the book to design a professional growth plan. The module Annual Professional Plan (1.3.7) may prove helpful in providing a process for such planning.
It is important to be as specific as possible in planning areas in which you want to grow teaching knowledge and skills. Once outcomes have been identified, it is time to browse the book to determine which modules are going to prove to be most effective in helping achieve those outcomes. Most chapters of the Faculty Guidebook contain an overview module. Review these to determine the likelihood that this chapter contains materials that match your needs. Furthermore, each module begins with an introductory paragraph that describes the contents of that module. In the event one wishes to explore a topic more deeply, bibliographic information about primary sources at the end of the module provides a starting point. As in all learning, one will want to periodically assess progress, and/or modify professional development based upon what has been learned. The chapter on Assessment offers materials and techniques that will be helpful at this stage of implementation.
Customize for Local Needs
Some will find that the process of developing and implementing a plan, selecting best resources, and assessing progress is a process best done individually or with a mentor. Others will choose to engage in shared learning within small communities. Reports from users conclude that the materials found in the book lend themselves to development of just-in-time workshops. Others report that it has been an invaluable resource as they develop programming for new faculty, for realigning practices of senior faculty with their institution’s priorities, and including adjunct faculty in institution-wide efforts to transform learning. One of the beauties of this resource is that it is available in its entirety on-line for those institutions that have a site-license. This accessibility promotes partnering across departments and with colleagues that may be physically separated.
Inside the back cover of this book, you will find a listing of freestanding institutes offered by Pacific Crest. These institutes rely heavily on the contents of the Faculty Guidebook, and in turn, dictate needs for future modules.